Reference application: Deep well infiltration Watervlak, DWAT - Literature review


The deep well infiltration Watervlak (DWAT) is a deep aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (ASTR) system located on the Dutch North Sea coast in the coastal sand dunes opposite of Castricum. The DWAT consists of 20 deep injection wells used for the infiltration of pre-treated surface water from the Ijsselmeer and from the Rhine River (inlet at the Lek Canal in Nieuwegein) into the third aquifer of the coastal dune system. This aquifer is about 35 m thick and is found at depth of 55-90 m below ground level. After a travel time between 1 and 12 months, the injected water is recovered from 12 abstraction wells. To prevent upconing of the underlying ambient saline groundwater during abstraction, the recovery is set to 90 % of the total infiltration volume of approximately 5 million m3/year.


Deep well infiltration, Aquifer storage, transfer and recovery, ASTR


Application scale

Water use - End user

Freshwater production

Freshwater storage volume

Source of water for infiltration