Reference application: Deep well infiltration Watervlak, DWAT - Literature review
DescriptionThe deep well infiltration Watervlak (DWAT) is a deep aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (ASTR) system located on the Dutch North Sea coast in the coastal sand dunes opposite of Castricum. The DWAT consists of 20 deep injection wells used for the infiltration of pre-treated surface water from the Ijsselmeer and from the Rhine River (inlet at the Lek Canal in Nieuwegein) into the third aquifer of the coastal dune system. This aquifer is about 35 m thick and is found at depth of 55-90 m below ground level. After a travel time between 1 and 12 months, the injected water is recovered from 12 abstraction wells. To prevent upconing of the underlying ambient saline groundwater during abstraction, the recovery is set to 90 % of the total infiltration volume of approximately 5 million m3/year.
KeywordsDeep well infiltration, Aquifer storage, transfer and recovery, ASTR
Water use - End user
Freshwater storage volume
Source of water for infiltration
Pre-treatment before infiltration
- EU Water Framework Directive "Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy"
- EU Groundwater Directive "Directive 2006/118/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration"
Publications and references
- D12.2 Pre-requisites and design criteria for new MAR systems in compliance with EU WFD and GWD (including pre-treatment) (Report)
- Analysis of brackish water behavior at an ASTR deepwell infiltration site after 20 years of monitoring (Conference proceedings)
- Clogging of Deep Well Infiltration Recharge Systems in the Netherlands (Book/book chapter)